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Dedicated Server Manual

This dedicated manual is from old unix servers we offered. Yet it has all you need to get the job done with Linux. The major changes are the PATHS. Each server has a Hosting Software, ensim, cpanel. plesk and others,. Depending on which program is on YOUR server will depend on the location of directories such as the user directories.






Logging In

Please note that telnet sessions pass information in plain text and are therefore not considered to be secure. For secure, encrypted sessions we only allow using the SSH protocol.

Please connect to your server with SSH. Use the free software called PUTTY>

Once a successful connection is established, you’ll receive a login prompt. Enter the username for your server and press Enter. Next, you’ll be asked for a password. Type in the password that you received and press Enter. After logging in, your screen should look something like the following:


login: YourLogin 
Password: ***************
Last login: Sun May 13 20:46:09 from



Please abide by the server policies listed below.

   The following items or activities are not allowed on this server.
   * Pirated software, warez or illegal MP3.
   * Porn or adult material or links to them.
   * IRC and IRC bots (BitchX, eggdrop, etc.).  
   * Proxys/Port "Bouncers" etc (BNC, shelld)
   * Unsolicited or bulk email sent from the server or referencing a
         domain on the server.
   * Third party chat scripts (para is OK).  We provide 2 chat scripts.
   * Minivend daemons require approval and cost extra to run.
   * Any attempt to exploit, undermine, overload or adversely affect
        the system or it's users.
***Any violation of the above will result in loss of access priviledges.***

                        ****Thank you!****
You have mail.

The domain name should be your actual domain name like Once logged in if you want to become root to do server administration, type:

- Su

And hit <enter>. It will prompt you for a password. Enter the root password sent to you in your login emails. Your screen should now look like this:

cassiopeia:/home2/YourLogin$ su



The # denotes you are ROOT. If at any point you get confused on what username you are logged in as simply type: whoami and LINUXwill display your username. Your screen will look like this if you run whoami:

cassiopeia:/home2/YourLogin# whoami





Your Server’s File System Structure

Your server runs on LINUXand is very similar to the directory structure used by DOS. The directory tree starts at the root, which is the lowest possible level in the directory tree. From the root level, the file structure branches out into sub-sections or what is know as "directories."

A directory that contains another directory is called a parent directory. Directories can branch out into subdirectories, which in turn can branch out and contain other subdirectories, and so on. The relationship between the root and any directory within the system is called a path. Paths are displayed with an initial slash (/) to denote the root, and subsequent directories are separated by additional slashes.

If you ever get lost and do not remember where you are in the directory tree, you can type: pwd and LINUXwill display the current directory. Your screen will look like this if you run the pwd command:

cassiopeia:/home2/YourLogin# pwd





Your HOME Directory

When you first login to your server you start out in your home directory. This is the directory on the system that contains all the files and subdirectories pertaining to you and your server.The path to your home directory is:


Note that username is the same username you use to login to the server. To understand the path to your home directory, realize that by starting at the root, then branching off into the directory called "home" then branching off into the directory called "username," you arrive at your very own home directory.

In your home directory, you "own," or have permission to access, any of the directories and files contained in or below the directory, with the exception of a few system files that you do not have the ability to edit or delete.


Basic LINUXCommands



man: A type of LINUXhelp system that displays a manual page about a specified command.


pwd: Short for Print Working Directory. Displays the path to the current directory.


ls (list): Displays a list of the files and directories in the current directory.


ll (long list): Displays a "long listing" of files, directories, permissions and file size in the current directory. Similar to the DOS command DIR.


grep: Searches documents or directories for a specific word, phrase, or file.


cd (change directory): Used to move to a different directory. If no directory is specified, it will take you to your home directory.


mkdir (make directory): Creates a new directory.


mv: Moves a file into another directory, or renames a file by "moving" an existing file to a new file with a new name.


rm (remove): Removes a file or directory.


cp (copy): Copies a file or directory.


touch: Creates a new, empty file or updates the date that an existing file was last modified.


more: Displays the contents of a text file. If the contents of the file are larger than your screen, it will wait for you to ask for more by pressing the space bar.


pico: Starts the PICO online text editor.


pine: Starts the PINE email program.

Basic LINUXTutorial

--I am lost! What do I do?

This section introduces you to some helpful commands when discovering for the first time you have absolutely no idea where you are:


The pwd command

Use the pwd command to display the full path of the directory you are currently in.


The ls command

Use the ls command to view the files and directories contained within your current directory.

The ls command will output like this:

19t.gif hostsentry-0.02/

1t.gif hostsentry-0_02_tar

21t.gif htac

23t.gif htsdata/

25t.gif index.html


The l command

The l command displays a "long list" of files and subdirectories within the current directory, including file permissions, file ownership, file sizes (in bytes), and the date each file or directory was created or last modified. l is technically not a command, but an alias to ls –al. The l "command" is similar to the DOS command DIR. If you run the l command your screen will look like this:

drwxr-xr-x 3 YourLogin YourLogingr 124 Jan 1 2000 .htsdata

-rw-r--r-- 1 YourLogin YourLogingr 184320 Jan 1 2000 hostsentry-0_02_tar

-rw-r--r-- 1 YourLogin YourLogingr 165 Jul 12 2000 htac

drwxr-xr-x 3 YourLogin YourLogingr 1024 Jan 1 2000 htsdata

-rw-r--r-- 1 YourLogin YourLogingr 13253 Jul 12 2000 index.html

-rw-r--r-- 1 YourLogin YourLogingr 1499 Jul 9 2000 index.html.bak

Notice that in this view of the same directory, files that start with a dot (.) also appear. These files are typically necessary system files and they are not shown with the ls command.

Take a look at the first (far-left) column of this output. Note that each line begins with one of 3 characters: a ‘d’, an ‘l’, or a dash (-). A dash denotes a file; ‘d’ stands for directory; and ‘l’ refers to link.


--How do I create a file or directory?


The mkdir command

You can create your own directories with the mkdir command.

Example: At the command prompt, type:

mkdir testing

and hit <enter>

You have just created a directory called "testing"


The cd command

To work within a directory, you must first move into that directory using the cd command.

Example: To check out the "testing" directory you just created, type:

cd testing

and hit <enter>

You are now in the /testing directory. To verify this, type:

pwd Enter

The full path is displayed as /home/username/testing

Here are some other features of the cd command worth noting:

If you don’t specify a directory you will automatically be taken to your home directory. You can perform this by just typing:


and hit <enter>

You are now automatically taken back to your home directory (home/username).


The touch command

Similar to the mkdir command, which is used to create directories, the touch command is used to create empty files. This command also can be used to update the date that a file was last modified.

Example: Create an empty file called 1234

touch 1234

and hit <enter>


Note that the 0 bytes file 1234 has been added to the directory listing.


Searching for words with the grep command

The grep command can be used to search text files for occurrences of a word or phrase.

Example: To search your /home/www/YourLogin/index.html file for the word ‘hosting,’ type:

grep ‘hosting’ /home/www/YourLogin/index.html

and hit <enter>

The output displays all of the lines that contain the word ‘hosting’ within the file.


How do I change, create or delete files or directories?


The pico command

To add text to a file, you can use pico, an online editor. Pico is a simple text editor that comes pre-bundled with LINUXand is very easy to use. It’s menu based and similar to the old DOS versions of MS Word.

Example: you want to create a file called index.html. You would type:

pico index.html

and hit <enter>

Pico will automatically open and create an empty file called index.html. Whatever text you add to the file will be later saved.

Your screen should look like this:


Because the file is empty, the editing screen will look blank. Now type some text to make it come alive:


I am testing PICO. What will this do?

And hit<enter>

To save the new contents of this file, press Ctrl+X. Pico will ask if you would like to save the contents of the file. Press Y to do so. Finally, pico will ask you what to name the saved file (File Name to write). By default, pico suggests you keep the same filename, so simply press Enter to accept.

Now if you go to your web browser and open it up to you will see:

I am testing PICO. What will this do?

While using pico, there are several key combinations that will help you view or edit a file. Below find the most common used commands or key strokes:

Ctrl+G Open the tutorial

Ctrl+Y View previous page

Ctrl+V View next page

Ctrl+A Go to the beginning of a line

Ctrl+E Go to the end of a line

Ctrl+C Display the line number that you are currently on

Ctrl+W Search the file for a word

Ctrl+O Save the file and do not exit

Ctrl+X Exit Pico (will prompt you to save or discard changes)


The more command

The more command displays the contents of a text file. If the contents of the file are larger than your screen, you "ask for more" by pressing the space bar when you are ready, or quit by pressing Ctrl+C.

Example: Use the more command to verify that the new text you entered with pico is now saved inside your "hello" file:

more index.html

And hit<enter>

The text you entered with Pico should appear:

I am testing PICO. What will this do?


The cp command

The cp command is used to copy one file to another. The format of the cp command is

cp source target

where the source is the original file and the target is the name of the new file.

Example: Make a copy of your hello file and name the copy "hello2."

cp index.html index-old.html

And hit<enter>

To verify that the file was copied successfully, type:


And hit<enter>

There is now a index-old.html file in addition to the index.html file. To verify that the contents of the newly created or copied file index-old.html you can type:

more index.html

And hit<enter>

Again, the same input appears:

I am testing PICO. What will this do?

The mv command

The mv command can be used to either move a file into another directory, or to rename a file (by "moving" an existing file to a new file with a new name).

Example 1: To rename the index.html file as "index-1234.html" type:

mv index.html index-1234.html

And hit<enter>

Now the file will be renamed index-1234.html and index.html will be gone.

Example 2: Create a new directory called dir1234 and move the index-1234.html file into it:

mkdir dir1234

And hit<enter>

You have now just created a new directory called dir1234. Now lets move index-1234.html into it:

mv index-1234.html dir1234


The index-1234.html file is now in the directory dir1234.


QUIZ: What is the full path to the file index-1234.html in directory dir1234?

Answer: /home/username/dir124/index-1234.html


Removing a file using the rm command

You can remove files with the rm command. Be very careful using this command. Once you remove a file its gone forever.

Example: Lets remove the file called index-1234.html in the directory dir1234. Make sure you are still in this directory. If you are unsure type pwd and you should see:


rm index-1234.html

And hit<enter>


Removing a directory using the rm -R command

Using the –R option with the rm command allows you to delete directories as well as files. Be very careful when using the -R option with the rm command. Used incorrectly, this command can cause a lot of damage as it removes every file in the directory in one clean swoop.

Example 1: Delete the dir1234

To do this you need to be one directory higher, do if you are in dir1234 you need to type:

cd ..

And hit<enter>

The .. directs the operating system to take you up 1 directory level or back to /home/username in this case. To verify you have done this correctly type pwd and you should see:


One note on this, the rm command alone will NOT remove a directory. To prove this, type:

rm dir1234

And hit<enter>

The following error message appears:

rm: dir1234: is a directory


To prevent you from deleting an entire directory by accident, the rm command requires an additional flag, or command line option, to verify that you really want to remove the directory. Now, try removing the dir1234 directory using the –R (recursive)flag:

rm –R dir1234

And hit<enter>

In the preceding command line, the –R option tells the rm command to recurse–in other words, to not only remove the specified directory, but to also remove all files and/or subdirectories that the dir1234 directory contains.

You’ll now be asked to confirm that you really want to delete the directory and each file contained within it. Press Y, Enter to confirm.


Useful Directories


/ Is the base or root directory of the entire file system.
www: This directory, also known as the Document Root, houses your Web pages, graphics, and any other files you want available for public view through a Web browser. You can create any number of subdirectories within the www directory. Those who access your server with a Web browser will have read access to the www directory, and to every file and subdirectory that it contains. However, nobody has the ability to write to or change any of these files unless you specifically configure your server to allow them to do so. You can configure your server to restrict access to certain subdirectories of your document root. This process is discussed in a later chapter.
/www/conf All configuration files for the server.
/www/logs Contains the transfer logs for each domain. These logs are trimmed by default every Sunday at 2:40CT to save space.
/www/logs/archive Archives of your old server logs. Helpful is trying to retrieve information on a hacker attacker or something of similar nature.

/ftp/logs This directory houses all of the FTP transfer logs.
/www/realaudio Contains all of the RealVideo/Audio files for each domain.
/home/username/www main web directory for
/ftp/username main ANONYMOUS ftp dir for
/root This is the server’s root directory. Note this is not /home/root rather just /root.
/var/spool/mail This directory contains all of the incoming mail for every user on the server. By default every user gets 10 MB of spool space.


/home/access-log: Contains records of all the Web activity that occurs on your server.


/home/username/www/cgi-bin Contains executable binary files and script files that can interact with Web visitors through their Web browser. These programs are commonly referred to as CGI programs. CGI stands for "Common Gateway Interface."
/home/username/www/wusage Wusage online statistical files
/ftp/username/incoming This is the directory for that stores all of the incoming anonymous FTP files transferred in from users or site visitors.
/home/username/infobots This directory is where your Mail bots are stored (email auto-responder) files
/home/username/maillists Contains all mailing lists for
/usr/local/pnserver This is Real Audio/Video is installed for the server. All binary, configuration and installation files are located in here.
/usr/local/Hughes This is the mSQL installation directory.
/usr/local/frontpage All of the FrontPage extensions and binaries are located here
/usr/local/majordomo Majordomo Listserver files are kept in here.
/usr/local/ssl Where your SSL certificates are located.


/etc/passwd This file contains all of the users that are setup to access the server.
/etc/shadow This file contains the encrypted passwords for the users that are in /etc/passwd.
/etc/group Lists all of the groups and their members You can use this file to find out who belongs to which domain.
/etc/da This file contains the server wide mail forwarding information that is collected from each domain. If you open this file you will see: webmaster

This means that any mail that comes into the server for will automatically be placed in the spool file for the user webmaster. Do not edit this file directly, please edit the .redirect file which is in the /home/username directory for each domain. The server has an automated process which collects the entries in the .redirect file every 10 minutes and places them in this file.

/etc/da2 Works just as the /etc/da file does but this file contains information for any email that is to be forwarded OFF the server. If you open this you might see:

This means that any email that comes to will automatically be forwarded on to

The simplest way to distinguish /etc/da and /etc/da2 is that they are both mail forwarding configuration files but /etc/da2 forwards off the server while /etc/da keeps mail on the server.

/etc/domains This file contains a list of all of the virtual domains on the server, the default username and the group name for that domain. If you edit this file your screen will look like this: kinggrp

/etc/domains2 This file lists domain aliases, or domain pointers. It will show you the aliased domain and the master domain. For example you might see:

This shows that which is located at the IP address on this local server also has a aliased domain which will bring users to the same space. Simply put, in a web browser if someone types or they will pull up the files located at on this server.


/etc/ This file will show you every IP address bound to your server.

/etc/named/ipnums This file will show you a list of just the UNUSED IP addresses on your server.

Other important files and their directories:


/etc/ Contains a list of domain names that you wish to be able to provide email service for on your server.


/etc/ A very important file that allows your server to handle email. Do not edit unless you are extremely versed in UNIX. All of the automated software on your server can update and edit this as needed for you.


/etc/hosts: This file shows you every domain on the server and the IP address assigned to it. It will also show you which IPs are bound to your server to use for future addition of virtual domains.


/usr/bin: This directory contains many of the commands that you use on your server. Because of the way your server is configured, these commands are accessible from any directory. For example, the files ls and pwd are actually stored in this directory, but you can use them from any directory on your server. You should never need to change any of the files in this directory, and it's a very good idea not to try.


/usr/log: This directory contains an important file, called xferlog and httpd. The xferlog file contains a record of all the FTP activity that takes place on your server and the httpd log records every web hit.


/var/spool: This directory contains a subdirectory called mqueue, which stores any mail that is waiting to be sent from your server. Because mail is usually sent immediately, this directory will be empty most of the time. However, if there is a temporary delivery problem, mail may queue up here for later delivery.


/ftp: This directory contains files for email and FTP users that you add to your VServer. In some cases, a directory will be created in here with the user's name and will act as that user's home directory.


/var/spool/mail: This directory contains stored email messages for your Administrative Email account, and for any POP users you have added to your server.


/home/www/httpd.conf: The main configuration file for your server’s Web service. This is the configuration file that is modified most often. You can edit it to configure your server’s Virtual Hosting capabilities, to modify the way your log files are managed, and to configure many other advanced features. This file is very complicated to edit. Please use the proprietary domain provisioning tool installed on your server by typing account at any root level prompt.

The /home/www/conf/httpd.conf file is the main configuration file for your Web service. It contains directives relating to the operation of the server as a whole, and is therefore the file you are most likely to make changes to.

Some of the more useful or important directives in your httpd.conf file are:


HostnameLookups: This directive turns on or off reverse DNS lookups in your log files. When off, the Web server responds more quickly. When on, the server performs DNS lookups every time a user hits the page. Although it can provide useful information, the HostnameLookups option causes the Web server to respond more slowly. For this reason, HostnameLookups is turned off by default.


ServerName: Specifies the name of your server. The server name MUST be a valid domain name that was assigned to you. By default this will end in which is the network your server is housed on.


ServerAdmin: This directive denotes the email address that a visitor should contact in case of server problems. The address is displayed through the browser in some error messages and is also available in CGI scripts as a variable called SERVER_ADMIN. By default, the ServerAdmin is set as the, but can be any valid email address.


ErrorLog: Specifies the location of the file where you want to log your Web server errors. It is useful for debugging CGI programs and finding broken links on your Web site. By default, this directive is set to logs/error_log.


TransferLog: Specifies the location of the file where you want to log information about requests (often called "hits") that are made to your Web service. By default, this directive is set to logs/access_log.


AgentLog: Specifies the location to log information about the types of Web browsers that are being used to visit your site. By default, this directive is set to logs/agent_log


RefererLog: Specifies the location to log information about where your Web visitors are being "referred" from–in other words, where they were before they came to your Web site. The misspelling of the word referer is intentional for historical reasons. By default, this directive is set to logs/referer_log.


<VirtualHost></VirtualHost>: This directive allows you to host additional domains on your server. Directives that are placed between <VirtualHost> and </VirtualHost> apply only to that specific virtual host. By default, there should be a <VirtualHost> entry present for your main domain name. Most directives can be applied to a <VirtualHost> entry.


/home/www/srm.conf: Contains important configuration data concerning Web directories and file names. One part of this file that you may want to modify is a section that allows you to specify custom error pages for you server Web service. Please use the proprietary domain provisioning tool installed on your server by typing account at any root level prompt.

The /home/www/conf/srm.conf file contains directives that relate to names and resources in the file system—file paths, directory indexes, aliases, and so forth.


DocumentRoot: Specifies the directory where your HTML documents are to reside. Your Web service will not function without this directive. By default, this is set to /www


DirectoryIndex: Specifies the name of the file or files to look for as the default home page. If the file named here is not present, an "index" of the directory will be created if the Options directive that pertains to that directory allows indexing. By default, this directive is set to allow the follwing files to execute by default if someone just types in a browser:

default.htm index.cgi index.html index.htm index.shtml index.shtml index.htmv index.php index.php3 /missing.html

NOTE: the /missing.html is added in there so if you don’t have an index.html or one of these other files in a directory someone cannot get a directory listing of the files in there. This is just another security precaution we take to ensure your files stay safe from potential hackers.


UserDir: This directive is used to enable to disable the use of user directories inside your Web site URLs. If you define a name here, and FTP users that you have added to the /home/username directory tree can serve Web documents from your Web site by creating a directory by that name in their home directory and using username in URLs. By default, this option is off. Typically, the directive is set to public_html to enable this service.


AccessFileName: Specifies the name of the file to look for in each directory for access control information. The contents of the file named here can override the global access control settings that are contained in /home/www/conf/access.conf if the AllowOverride directive that pertains to that directory allows overrides. By default, this is set to .htaccess.


Redirect: Allows you to redirect clients to a different area of the Web site, or even to a different Web site.


AddType: Allows you to define new media types and associate them with a file extension, and optionally, an executable program such as a CGI.


ErrorDocument: Allows you to specify an alternate document to display when Web server errors occur.


Alias: Allows you to create directories that can contain Web-servable contents but are physically located outside of the document root. By default an alias for the icons directory that contains the images for server-generated index files is defined as:

Alias /icons/ /www/icons


ScriptAlias: Allows you to create directories that can contain executable programs that are available to the Web server but are physically located outside of the document root. This is used both to enable CGI-BIN capabilities on your primary Web site, and on virtual hosts when used inside <VirtualHost> directives. By default a script alias for your /home/username/www/cgi-bin directory is defined as:

ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /www/cgi-bin/



access.conf: Defines the general access settings for your server. This file determines who is able to access your server and what visitors are able to do in certain directories. You can edit this file in order to restrict access to specific directories of your document root to specific people, groups, and passwords. Please use the proprietary domain provisioning tool installed on your server by typing account at any root level prompt.

The acces.conf file divides the Web server space into several sections using <Directory></Directory> directives. Options, restrictions, and other settings pertaining to the specific sections are placed within these directives.

For security reasons, the most important directive may be the AllowOverride directive. By default, the document root allows unrestricted overrides. If this is a concern to you, you should change the AllowOverride directive to None, or a combination of the following:

All. Removes restriction on access control files within the specified directory.

None. No access control files are allowed within the specified directory.

AuthConfig. Enables the use of AuthType, AuthUserFile, and AuthGroupFile directives.

FileInfo. Enables the use of the AddType and AddEncoding directives.

Limit. Enables the use of the Limit sectioning directive.

Options. Enables the use of the Options directive.

Another directive that is important for security reasons is the Options directive. This directive defines what can be done in the directory.

By default, the Options setting for main Web directories is set to allow auto-generated indexes, symbolic link navigation, and Server Side Includes. For the /home/username/www//cgi-bin directory it is set to allow CGI execution and symbolic link navigation.

This directive can be set to any of the following, alone or in combination:

All. All features are enabled for this directory.

None. No features are enabled for this directory.

ExecCGI. CGI scripts can be executed in this directory.

Includes. Enables server-side include files in this directory.

IncludesNoExec. Enables server-side include files, but disables the exec server-side include command.

FollowSymLinks. Allows the server to follow symbolic links.

SymLinksIfOwnerMatch. Allows the server to follow a symbolic link only if the target file or directory is owned by the same user ID as the link.



mime.types: Defines the media types for your server. You may edit this file to add new file types to your server as new multimedia extensions become standardized.

An example of a mime.type would be this:


application/commonground dp

Virtual Domain Provisioning Tools

--Account Bot

This is a proprietary tool constructed to help you administer your server with very little knowledge of the inner-workings of UNIX. You can do pretty much anything you need to do by using the account bot.

To start the account bot simply type:



and hit <enter>

Your screen should look like this:

There are currently 0 domains on this server.

Main menu:

1. Add a new domain.

2. Add a new user.

3. Setup menu.

4. Add an Email only account(POP access).

5. Delete/modify user/domain.

6. Add members to an existing group.

7. Add/modify disk quotas.

8. Update nameserver only.

9. Add an ftp only account.

10. Realaudio.

11. Point domain A to domain B.

12. Move domain

13. Move_domain_batch.(read from /root/batchmove)

20. Add a DNS entry

25. IP Usage

You can now choose anything you want from the menu based system. If at any time you wish to exit out of the program you hit CTRL+C.

First lets setup a new virtual domain on this server. Lets call it

Choose option number 1 by typing



and hit <enter>

Your screen will now ask you a series of questions.

The first question will ask you for the domain name. Enter

And hit <enter>

Next the account bot will ask you the username for this domain. You will see [king] next to the answer. In LINUXthe [ ] denotes DEFAULT so by hitting <enter> it will automatically type whatever is between the [ ] for you. So just hit <enter> here because we want the username of the domain name to be just king. You always want the username of each domain to be just the domain without the extension this way you can organize the /home drive easier because each directory will have a unique name. NOTE: all virtual domains will have their own group. In this case, the group is "kinggrp". All new users added to will automatically belong to the group "kinggrp"

The next question will ask for the Full Name. This is just used for accounting purposes and you can enter the name of the client who owns this virtual domain name here if you wish or you can leave it blank. By default it is always blank.

Next the account bot will ask you for the password for this domain. The password can be any combination of UPPER case letters, lower case letters, numbers, or symbols. The password can be up to 8 characters long. Please make the password relatively difficult to ensure proper server security.

Next up the account program will ask you to choose a disk quota for this domain. A disk quota is the amount of space in megabytes a virtual domain can occupy on the hard drive. This is especially useful to charge clients additional monthly fees when they run out of server space.

Next it will ask you for the default email address for the domain By default this is the or in this specific case

The next item on the list will ask if you want to install the business site scripts. These are just the 15 free CGI scripts that come with each virtual domain. These include a BBS, guestbook, counters, formmail, shopping cart and other scripts. If you are setting up this domain for retail use we suggest you give the client the extra scripts.

Next the bot will prompt you to select if you want FrontPage extensions installed on the domain.

Lastly, the account bot will ask if you want the remaining free site scripts installed. The default selection here is y because it will install things such as the Miva empresa engine and PHP4.

The domain is now ready to setup. The account bot will prompt you one last time to make sure you are satisfied with your choices. If you made a mistake simply press n and hit <enter> to redo the setup process or hit y and press <enter> and the domain will be setup instantly.

Your screen should look like this:

Your choice? 1

Full domain name?

who is the owner(username) of the domain?[king]:

Full name(can be blank):


Select disk quota for this domain:

(a)2 megs

(b)5 megs

(c)10 megs

(d)25 megs

(e)50 megs

(f)75 megs

(g)100 megs

(h)150 megs

(i)500 megs

(j)1000 megs

(k)1500 megs

(l)2000 megs

(m)No quota

Your choice ?: m

Default email address in .redirect[]:y

Install full business site scripts?[y/n]:y

Install frontpage(using the above username/password)?[y/n]:y

Install new scripts?[y/n]:y


Username: king

Password: 1234

Disk quota: None

Default email address: y

Basic site scripts: Yes

New scripts: Yes

Frontpage: Yes

Cgiwrapper: Yes

Satisfied with the above choices?[y/n] y

The account bot will not setup the domain and assign an IP address to it. It will edit all appropriate files on the server and setup the virtual domain completely ready to use.

Your screen should now show something similar to this:

Guestbook installed.

WWWboard installed.

Installed click and go.

Installed graphic counter.

Shop cart installed.

Anonymous ftp dir is /ftp/king

wusage installed.

Starting install, port: 80, web: "root web"

Creating web

Install completed.

Frontpage installed.

htmlscript installed.

Assigned IP number:

Notice the Assigned IP address for this domain is now This is the IP address you can use to access the domain via the web. This is the IP that will be added to DNS so you can access without having to know it is housed at on your server. Our DNS is automated and will pick up the new domain from your server within 10 minutes and add it to DNS. Should you change the IP of in the future, the DNS will automatically refresh for you.

You are now ready to use the account bot to setup a new domain or administer a current one. Explore the bot a little on your own, its full or useful tools for you, the webmaster.

--Setup bot

This is a another proprietary tool constructed to help you administer your server with very little knowledge of the inner-workings of UNIX. The setup bot is used to fix problems with virtual domains on your server.

To start the account bot simply type:



and hit <enter>

Your screen should look like this:


noir:/www/conf# setup

Setup menu:

1. Install/reinstall features

2. Mysql

3. Msql

4. Install a SSL certificate

5. Restart the RealAudio and Video server

6. Miscellaneous

q. Quit.

Your choice?


If you select option number 1 the setup bot will prompt you to enter a domain name that resides on the server to administer. Once you do this will see a menu similar to this:

Install Menu

1. All standard scripts

2. Guestbook

3. Wusage

4. Simple Search

5. Click and Go query box

6. Random text script

7. WWW Board Menu

8. Free For All Links page

9. Whois Query

10. Formmail.cgi

11. Cgiemail

12. Miva

13. ShopMonster

14. Banner Rotation

15. Resellers Scripts

16. W:Mail 3.0

17. MonsterControls

18. Password protected web page

19. Boutique shopping cart

20. Graphic Counter

21. Volano Chat

22. Miva Order 1.14

23. Sitepop (now part of monstercontrols)

24. Let's Take an Order

25. Miva Merchant 3.01

26. PHP 3

27. Miva Merchant 2.22

28. Auction

29. Mail.cgi

30. SiteInfo

32. Monsterbook

33. Raw Access Logs

34. BWI (Banner Wheel Industrial)

35. Index.cgi creation tool

q. Quit.

<enter> Return to main menu.

Your choice?


You can now choose from the 35 options above to install, re-install or repair broken scripts, PHP, Miva empresa and other things.

If you hit <enter> it will return you back to the main menu and your screen will once again show:

noir:/www/conf# setup

Setup menu:

1. Install/reinstall features

2. Mysql

3. Msql

4. Install a SSL certificate

5. Restart the RealAudio and Video server

6. Miscellaneous

q. Quit.

Your choice?


From here you can choose option 2 if you wish to setup, administer, create or delete mySQL databases or users who can access certain databases.

From here you can choose option 3 if you wish to setup, administer, create or delete mSQL databases or users who can access certain databases.

From here you can choose option 4 if you want to setup SSL certificates for the server or for particular domains. NOTE: you must first run



And hit <enter>

from a regular root prompt to generate the SSL keypair to send off to Thawte or Verisign.

Option 5 from the menu will stop and restart the Real Audio/Video server for you automatically.

If you choose option 6 your screen will display:

Misc. menu:

1. Reinstall /ftp/supportteam directory

2. Limited-access user

q. Quit.

<enter> Return to main menu.

Which lets you reinstall a FTP account or setup a limited-access user.

The limited-access user function allows you to setup a FTP user to have only access to certain directories within your domain.

For example, if you have and you want an additional FTP to user to access only /home/www/king/newuser you could setup a limited-access user and they would only be able to FTP into that /newuser directory inside They could never accecss the index.html or other files that are stored in your /home/king/www directory.


General information about your server:

Operating system: Red Hat Linux 5.2 (CUSTOM)
Web server: Apache 1.3.19
mSQL server: version 2.0.9
FrontPage: version (FrontPage 2000)
Wusage: 7.0
Majordomo server: version 1.94.3
PHP: 4.0.4

1. How do I change a user's password? Type

passwd someusername

and hit <enter>


2. A customer forgot the password. How do I find out what it was?

Each password is encrypted so there is no way to determine what the password was. You will simply have to change it to a new password.

3. How do I restart the web server? Type:


and hit <enter>

This will gracefully restart the server. In most cases, this is all that's necessary. There is also a more forceful method of restarting the server. Use this method only as a last effort to save the server without having to do a reset. You can type:



And hit <enter>

This will completely kill the current server and then restart it. Be careful with restarting the web server. It may take up to 30 seconds or more to restart and no one will be able to connect to the server during that time. Also, restarting the web server is especially bad for FrontPage users. They will get a timeout error message if they were in the process of publishing to the web they will get .lock files and will be prevented from re-uploading until certain steps are taken to repair the webs and child webs.

4. How do I restart sendmail? Type:


and hit <enter>

You can run this as often as you need. It will not affect any email or users on the server. Run this is the mail server seems to be stalling or timing out.

5. How do I change the message that gets displayed when I first telnet in?

Edit the following file:



6. How can I tell who is currently logged in or using my server? Type


and hit <enter>

This will show you can users who are telneted to the server and what time and day they logged on and which commands they are running.

7. What about the ftp users? How can I tell which are logged in? Type


and hit <enter>

8. My connection seems to be bad, how do I check it?

You can use "ping" and "traceroute".


If you run a trace route by typing



and hit <enter>

Your screen should show this:

noir:/home/www/conf# traceroute

traceroute: Warning: has multiple addresses; using

traceroute: Warning: Multiple interfaces found; using @ eth0

traceroute to (, 30 hops max, 40 byte packets

1 ( 0.510 ms 0.656 ms 0.670 ms

2 ( 0.899 ms 0.929 ms 0.917 ms

3 ( 2.096 ms 2.126 ms 2.152 ms

4 ( 2.001 ms 2.383 ms 2.173 m


5 ( 48.764 ms 49.366 ms 51.682


6 ( 60.256 ms 48.930 ms 48.578 ms

7 ( 49.497 ms 48.793 ms 49.030


8 ( 50.006 ms 48.735 ms 48.860 ms


If you see any astericks (*) in the results that means the ping requests timed out and did not return back to the server. This means there is a problem somewhere between your server and If you see this * in the first 2 hops:


1 0.510 ms 0.656 ms 0.670 ms

2 0.899 ms 0.929 ms 0.917 ms


That mans there is a problem with the network your server is located on or with your server itself. Good trace route times should be under 100ms at every hop.

If you run the ping command by typing:


and hit <enter>

Your screen will show this:

PING ( 56 data bytes

64 bytes from icmp_seq=0 ttl=248 time=49.3 ms

64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=248 time=50.0 ms

64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 ttl=248 time=49.7 ms

64 bytes from icmp_seq=3 ttl=248 time=49.6 ms

64 bytes from icmp_seq=4 ttl=248 time=49.6 ms

64 bytes from icmp_seq=5 ttl=248 time=49.8 ms

64 bytes from icmp_seq=6 ttl=248 time=49.7 ms

64 bytes from icmp_seq=7 ttl=248 time=49.6 ms

--- ping statistics ---

8 packets transmitted, 8 packets received, 0% packet loss

round-trip min/avg/max = 49.3/49.6/50.0 ms


The server will continue to ping forever. To stop it and view the results just press CTRL+C. You should not see any packet loss or times over 100ms. Notice above we had 0% packet loss: 8


packets transmitted, 8 packets received, 0% packet loss <--

and the highest ping time was 50.0 ms. So there are no problems to report here.

Alternatively, you can check the connection between your desktop computer (the computer you are using to remotely connect to your server) with ping.exe or tracert.exe from any Windows 95/98/2000/ME computer. Please note you type




From a Windows computer.



Will not work.

9. How do I check what processes are currently running? Type

ps aux

and hit <enter>

Your screen should look something like this:

root 31985 0.1 0.2 1336 708 ? S 04:24 0:00 expect /usr/spectro/l

root 31986 0.0 0.2 1232 528 p0 S 04:24 0:00 bash /usr/spectro/gra

root 31989 0.0 0.1 868 360 p0 S 04:24 0:00 rcp nbbmls.propagatio

root 31994 0.1 0.2 1336 708 ? S 04:24 0:00 expect /usr/spectro/g

root 31996 0.0 0.2 1232 528 p2 S 04:24 0:00 bash /usr/spectro/gra

root 31999 0.0 0.1 868 360 p2 S 04:24 0:00 rcp web.nistor.propag

root 32077 0.0 0.1 864 356 r8 S 22:06 0:00 rsh beryl.propagation

root 32079 0.0 0.1 864 356 r8 S 22:06 0:00 rsh beryl.propagation

root 32082 0.0 0.2 1336 708 ? S 04:25 0:00 expect /usr/spectro/l

root 32083 0.0 0.2 1232 528 p9 S 04:25 0:00 bash /usr/spectro/gra

root 32086 0.0 0.1 868 360 p9 S 04:25 0:00 rcp skeksis.propagati

root 32091 0.0 0.1 952 416 pd R 04:25 0:00 ps aux

These are all of the processes that are running on your server and the time at which they started. The second column is the ID which the server assigned to the process when it started. If you wish to terminate a runaway process you can do so by typing


kill ID

and hit <enter>

For example, if we want to kill the first process on the list, ID 31985 we would type:


kill 31985

and hit <enter>

10. How do I check the memory on the server? Type


and hit <enter>

Your screen should look like this:

total used free shared buffers cached

Mem: 254992 240676 14316 128220 77180 69292

-/+ buffers/cache: 94204 160788

Swap: 72256 112 72144

Here, 94204 Kbytes of memory are in use, and 160788 Kbytes are free. There should always be enough free memory available. If not, it's probably time to upgrade your server. When your server runs low on memory services will not start, clients will get time out messages when trying to get to your web site and your email will not process. The amount of memory needed depends on how many domains there are and how busy they are.

11. How do I add cronjobs?

Edit /root/cronfile. After you add the new entry, type "crontab cronfile". Here are some sample entries:

* * * * * /usr/bin/someprogram

Run /usr/bin/someprogram every minute, everyday.

06 * * * * /usr/bin/someprogram

Run it everyday, every hour, at 06 minute.

06 17 * * * /usr/bin/someprogram

Run it everyday at 17:06

06 17 * * 0 /usr/bin/someprogram

Run it every SUNDAY at 17:06


12. Why won’t cgi script ending in .pl run from outside the /cgi-bin directory?

The way the server and the cgi-wrapper are configured, scripts ending in .pl must be ran from within the /cgi-bin directory. If you wish to run scripts outside the /cgi-bin directory you must rename the file to end in .cgi.


13. I want to point multiple domains to the same IP address (or domain), how do I use the fakeip script that comes with my dedicated server?

Simple run the fakeip script from any root level prompt by typing:


and hit <enter>

Your screen should look like this:

cassiopeia:~# fakeip
Main Domain(Ex.
Fake Domain(Ex.
Directory of HTML files: test
Directory of HTML files doesn't exist in the dir /home/www/bob.
Would you like to create it or chose a new one(y/n): y

Can not find an index file in /home/www/bob/test

What file would you like to use(number or "n" to create one): n
Name of file: index.htm

1. Main Domain:
2. Fake Domain:
3. Home: /home/www/bob
   Location of index.cgi: /home/www/bob/index.cgi
4. Dir: /home/www/bob/test
5. File: index.htm
   Link to:
6. File: index.html
   Link to:
Choose a number or push enter to proceed:

Email address of client:

Now the fakeip script will automatically make a redirect CGI-script, called index.cgi and place it in the domain to that traffic that comes in for will automatically be redirected to the sub-directory /bob on your main domain.

The final step in this process is to use the account bot’s option #11 to park the domains to each other and add them to the DNS.

You can accomplish this by typing:


and hit <enter>

Your screen should look like this:

cassiopeia:~# account
There are currently # domains on this server.

Main menu:
1. Add a new domain.
2. Add a new user.
3. Setup menu.
4. Add an Email only account(POP access).
5. Delete/modify user/domain.
6. Add members to an existing group.
7. Add/modify disk quotas.
8. Update nameserver only.
9. Add an ftp only account.
10. Realaudio.
11. Point domain A to domain B.
12. Move domain
13. Move_domain_batch.(read from /root/batchmove)
25. IP Usage
(q) Quit.

You need to choose option #11 from the menu. You should now see this:

Your choice? 11
domain B: Full domain name?
domain A: Hit return to keep the same domain.
full domain name?[]

Now make sure you enter the FAKE DOMAIN as domain B, in this case And then the main domain on the server where you will be storing files is in this case just

Once you complete this, your domains will be parked and automatically redirected.

14. With respect to my mySQL databases, what should the correct ownership on those be set to?

MySQL databases and all of their files in /usr/local/mysql/data should be owned by msql.groupname.

Do perform ownership change, you need to type:


and hit <enter>

Example: for the domain "", DB name "schedule" and group "samplegrp"

So you would type:

chown msql.samplegrp

and hit <enter>

No matter what the domain name owner is the DBs must be owned by msql

drwxrwx--- 2 msql samplegrp 1024 Dec 8 00:16 schedule

cd /usr/local/mysql/data/schedule
chown msql.samplegrp * (NOTE: be sure you're in the domain's DB directory first)

server:/usr/local/mysql/data/schedule# l
total 24
drwxr-xr-x 2 msql samplegrp 1024 Sep 24 1998 .
drwxrwx--- 43 msql root 1024 May 11 17:50 ..




Domain & DNS terms

  • Domain Name - An Internet address in alphabetic form. Domain names must have at least 2 parts: the part on the left which names the organization, and the part on the right which identifies the highest subdomain, such as the country (fr for France, uk for United Kingdom) or the type of organization (com for commercial; edu for educational, etc.). Directory levels can be indicated in other parts. The IP address is translated into the domain name by the domain name server.

  • Hostname - The unique name that identifies a computer on a network. On the Internet, the host name is in the form ""; if there is only one Internet site the host name is the same as the domain name. One computer can have more than one host name if it hosts more than one Internet site, however (for example, "" and ""); in that case "comp" and "home" are host names and "" is the domain name.

  • Nameserver - NameServer or named. A UNIX process that converts hostnames to Internet addresses for TCP/IP.

  • Resolve - The process in TCP/IP that sends requests to the Domain Name Server to convert hostnames (such as www.lsyf/ to Internet addresses (such as

  • Whois - An Internet directory service which can be used to find information about users registered on a server, or other information about the network.

  • IP - Internet Protocol.The IP part of TCP/IP; the protocol that is used to route a data packet from its source to its destination over the Internet.

  • InterNIC - Internet Network Information Center. A group of three organizations which together provide services for NSFNet. General Atomics handles information services, AT&T handles directory and database services, and Network Solutions, Inc.(NSI) handles registration services. Network addresses and domain names for the Internet are assigned by InterNIC through NSI.

  • Registry/Registrar - (IR). A service provided by the Defense Data Network's Network Information Center, which has the responsibility of handling network address and Autonomous System identifiers for the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).

Unix System terms

  • Directory - The organization of directories (or folders) and files and on a hard drive, like the branches of an upside-down tree. The main directory is called the "root directory".

  • Current working directory - Directory that you are currently in.

  • Parent directory - In a database, the main file containing basic information about an item. One or more child files can be created with more detailed information.

  • Root directory - The top level in a hierarchical filing system, which comes up when the computer is first turned on. On a PC the root directory is called C:. Other directories branch down from the root directory.

  • Home directory - The first page on a World Wide Web site, to which supporting pages are linked.

  • Path - 1.The exact directions to a file on a computer. These directions are usually described by means of the hierarchical filing system from the top down, stating the drive, directory, any subdirectories, the file itself, and its filename extension if it has one: c:jobscompany resume.txt. This complete set of information is a fully qualified path. 2.The route between any two points, such as the communications channel between two computers.

  • Absolute path - A designation of the location of a file which is given in relation to the root directory; it includes the root directory and the descending series of subdirectories leading to the end file.

  • Relative path - A designation of the location of a file in relation to the current working directory, as opposed to an absolute or full path which gives the exact location.

  • Shell - A software interface between the user and the computer's operating system. The shell interprets commands entered by the user, and passes them on to the operating system. DOS shells are COMMAND.COM and DOS shell; some UNIX shells are the Bourne shell (sh), the C shell (csh), and the Korn shell (ksh).

  • Login / Username - An individual name of a user on a computer network, which is used for login. It is often the first initials and last name: jdavis. The username is also the part of an email address before the @ symbol:

  • Group - Groups are a way of assigning specific access rights to cerain classes of users. For example, all users working on project x could be added to a group xproj. System resources (such as disk space) devoted to project x could then be configured to permit only members of xproj full access.

  • Permissions - The set of identifiers that control access to files. Permissions consist of three fields: user, group and world. The user field controls access by the user owning the file, while the group field controls access by anyone matching the files group specification. As the name implies, the world field controls access by everyone else. Each field contains the same set of bits that specify operations that may or may not be performed, such as reading, writing and executing.
  • Symlinks - Systems Links. A way of linking or pointing a link to another file or directory in the system.
  • Localhost - The computer system the user is working on. The remote system is any other system in the network with which the local computer can communicate.
  • Remote host - A computer system connected to a network such as a LAN or the internet that you have to connect to remotely.
  • Prompt - A message from the computer that asks the operator to do something, such as enter a command, enter a password, or enter data. An example is the DOS prompt, C:.
  • Tarfile /tar archive - A UNIX command which copies a file or files to or from an archive.
  • Spool - Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line. To perform a peripheral operation while the computer is busy with other work. The most common use of spooling is with the printer; files are sent to the print spooler, which organizes a queue and then prints one file after another.
  • Daemon - A UNIX program that runs continuously in the background, until it is activated by a particular event. This word is often used to refer to programs that handle email. The word daemon is Greek for "an attendant power or spirit.".
  • Recursive - Referring back to itself.See recursive.
  • Httpd - Hypertext Transfer Protocol daemon. A World Wide Web server from NCSA, which is compatible with HTTP/1.0.

Internet Services

  • HTTP - Apache Hypertext Transfer Protocol daemon. A World Wide Web server from National Center for Supercomputing Applications, which is compatible with HTTP/1.0.It can support forms, server side includes, and searches.

  • FTP - File Transfer Protocol. A client/server protocol for exchanging files with a host computer. Examples are Xmodem, Ymodem, Zmodem and Kermit.

  • SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. A server-to-server protocol for delivering electronic mail. The standard protocol used on the Internet; also used on other TCP/IP networks.

  • POP3 - (Post Office Protocol, Version 3). A protocol, or set of rules, by which a client machine can retrieve mail from a mail server.

  • TELNET - (TN).A terminal emulation protocol that lets a user log in remotely to other computers on the Internet; it has a command line interface. Originally developed for ARPAnet, Telnet runs on top of the TCP/IP protocol.

  • SSH - Secure Shell Daemon that allows you to remotely connect to other computers on the internet through a series of RSA encrypted keys and is much like telnet in that it is mostly command line.
  • TCP/IP - (TCP/IP). The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) on top of the Internet Protocol (IP). These protocols were developed by DARPA to enable communication between different types of computers and computer networks. The Internet Protocol is a connectionless protocol which provides packet routing. TCP is connection-oriented and provides reliable communication and multiplexing.
  • Ping - Packet Internet Groper. A program used to test whether a particular network destination is online, by sending an Internet control message protocol (ICMP) echo request and waiting for a response. (Also called packet internet gopher).

  • Traceroute - Traceroute is a way of tracing hops or computers between you and the networked computer you are trying to reach.

  • Protocol - A set of rules that regulate the way data is transmitted between computers.

Web Design/Server terms

  • Source code - A computer program written by a programmer in a source language. Source code is input to a compiler or assembler, in order to derive object code (machine code).

  • Authoring - Creating a document; especially used for World Wide Web documents.

  • Binary vs Ascii files - Unix uses different signals for the end of a line of text than Windows or Macintosh. This instructs the FTP server to correctly convert the carriage return signals between formats when uploading or downloading ASCII text files. HTML Files [.html, .html], Perl/CGI Files [.pl, .cgi], and Text files [.txt] should all be transferred using ASCII modes. Any non-text files should be transferred Binary.

  • SQL - Structured Query Language (pronounced SQL or Sequel). A language used to create, maintain, and query relational databases. It is an ISO and ANSI standard.SQL uses regular English words for many of its commands, which makes it easy to use. It is often embedded within other programming languages.

  • PERL - Perl is a general-purpose programming language invented in 1987 by Larry Wall.With over one million users worldwide, it has become the language of choice for World Wide Web development, text processing, Internet services, mail filtering, graphical programming, systems administration, and every other task requiring portable and easily-developed solutions.

  • CGI - Common Gateway Interface. A way of interfacing computer programs with HTTP or WWW servers, so that a server can offer interactive sites instead of just static text and images.

  • SSI - Server Side Includes. The ability to include files from the server inside an HTML document by placing tags in the HTML file that link to those files. Using server-side includes makes it unnecessary to include multiple copies of the same information in the HTML file, and make it easier to work with frequently-updated information.

  • .htaccess - This is an apache directives file. It is a method for modifying the way apache behaves for a specific directory. An example of this is password protected directories which you can setup using your cpanel. The cpanel will generate the appropriate .htaccess file for this task.

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